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Psychiatry Investig > Volume 20(5); 2023 > Article
Psychiatry Investigation 2023;20(5):408-417.
DOI:    Published online May 25, 2023.
Validation of the Short Form of the Mood Instability Questionnaire-Trait (MIQ-T-SF) in the Korean General Population
Joohyun Yoon1  , Hyeona Yu1  , Yoonjeong Jang1  , Daseul Lee1  , Yun Seong Park1  , Hong Kyu Ihm1  , Hyun A Ryoo1  , Nayoung Cho1  , Jakyung Lee1  , Yeoju Kim1  , Jungkyu Park2  , Hyo Shin Kang2  , Tae Hyon Ha1,3  , Woojae Myung1,3 
1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Republic of Korea
2Department of Psychology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea
3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Correspondence: Tae Hyon Ha ,Tel: +82-31-787-7434, Fax: +82-31-787-4058, Email:
Correspondence: Woojae Myung ,Tel: +82-31-787-7430, Fax: +82-31-787-4058, Email:
Received: September 20, 2022   Revised: December 25, 2022   Accepted: January 30, 2023   Published online: May 25, 2023
*Joohyun Yoon and Hyeona Yu contributed equally to this study as co-first authors.
Mood instability (MI) is a clinically significant trait associated with psychiatric disorders. However, there are no concise measurements to evaluate MI. The initial Mood Instability Questionnaire-Trait (MIQ-T) was developed to fill this gap. The current study aimed to create a short form of MIQ-T (MIQ-T-SF) that measures MI with high validity and reliability in the Korean general population.
Of the 59 items in the MIQ-T, 17 items were chosen for the MIQ-T-SF following the factor analysis process. In total, 540 participants completed the MIQ-T-SF. Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega were used to evaluate reliability. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to determine construct validity. Concurrent validity was confirmed via comparisons with Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale. Measurement invariance across gender and age groups was confirmed before analyzing differences in scores using Kruskal-Wallis test.
The MIQ-T-SF displayed expected correlations and high internal consistency (α=0.71–0.90, Ωt=0.72–0.92). Using EFA and CFA, a five-factor structure was confirmed. Measurement invariance was supported, and gender differences were observed.
The MIQ-T-SF is an accurate and reliable method to detect MI in the Korean general population. The study’s results offer new perspectives for future studies on MI.
Key words   Emotional distress; Questionnaire design; Validation study; Factor analysis


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