Print ISSN 1738-3684
On-line ISSN 1976-3026
Information for authors
The Psychiatry Investigation is published bimonthly in English by the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association (KNPA).
The Journal covers the whole range of psychiatry and neuroscience. Both basic and clinical contributions are encouraged from all disciplines and research areas relevant to the pathophysiology and management of neuropsychiatric disorders and symptoms, as well as researches related to cross cultural psychiatry and ethnic issues in psychiatry.
The Journal publishes original articles, review articles, brief reports, letters, case reports, special articles and editorials.
All research articles are peer reviewed. Contributions are accepted for publication on condition that their substance has not been published or submitted for publication elsewhere. Authors submitting papers to the Journal (serially or otherwise) with a common theme or using data derived from the same sample (or a subset thereof) must send details of all relevant previous publications and simultaneous submissions.
The Journal is not responsible for statements made by contributors.
Material in the Journal does not necessarily reflect the views of the Editor or of the KNPA. Manuscripts accepted for publication are copy-edited to improve readability and to ensure conformity with house style.
General Policies
The manuscript should represent valid work and that neither the manuscript nor one with substantially similar content has been published or is being considered for publication elsewhere, except as described in an attachment. Everyone designated as authors should be qualifiedy for authorship. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credit should be based on substantial contributions to 1) conception and design or analysis and interpretation of data, 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and on 3) final approval of the version to be published. All these conditions must be met. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. One of the authors should be designated to receive correspondence and proofs, and the appropriate address indicated. This author must take responsibility for keeping all other named authors informed of the progress. In addition, the corresponding author must ensure that there is no one else who fulfils the criteria and has not been included as an author previously. The Journal does not consider people thanked in the Acknowledgements or listed as members of a study group on whose behalf a paper is submitted to be authors. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that the authorship is agreed among the study's workers, contributors of additional data and other interested parties, before submission of the manuscript.
Financial Disclosure and Copyright Transfer
All forms of support must be acknowledged in “Acknowledgments” section. The Journal requires approval of manuscript submission by all authors. In consideration of the action of the KNPA in reviewing and editing the manuscript, tables, and figures, the authors transfer, assign, or otherwise convey, all copyright ownership, including any and all rights incidental thereto, exclusively to the KNPA, in the event that such work is published by the KNPA.
Informed Consent and Confidentiality
A statement of informed consent for human investigation should be made in the text, along with the name of the institutional review board that approved the study protocol. Authors must ensure that patient confidentiality is in no way breached. Do not use real names, initials, or disclose information that might identify a particular person without any informed consent prior to the publication.
Submission of Manuscripts
Manuscripts should be submitted online at: Follow all instructions.
All submitted papers are peer-reviewed before it is decided whether they should be accepted, need minor/major revision or revision, or rejected. Authors must suggest 5 preferred reviewers. The Journal reserves the right to edit the language of papers accepted for publication for clarity and grammatical accuracy, and to make any formal changes to ensure compliance with this Journal. Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author for final approval. Upon acceptance of a manuscript for publication, the corresponding author will be required to sign an agreement transferring copyright to the publisher. The completed copyright transfer form should be scanned and uploaded online through the website (

Editorial office contact information:
The Editorial Office
Psychiatry Investigation, RN 522, 27 Seochojungang-ro 24-gil, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06601, Korea
Tel: +82-2-537-6171, Fax: +82-2-537-6174, E-mail:
Review Process
A submitted manuscript will be acknowledged and assigned a manuscript number, which is to be used in all further correspondence. Manuscripts are reviewed and given a priority based on their originality, importance of the findings, scientific merit and significance for the field, interest to readers, lucidity, and suitability for publication. Manuscripts with insufficient priority for publication are rejected promptly. Other manuscripts are sent to expert consultants for peer review. Manuscript under review is not opened to anyone other than peer reviewers and editorial staff. Peer reviewers remain anonymous and are expected to maintain strict confidentiality. Reviewers are also expected to inform the Editor of any conflicts of interest, including any financial arrangements involving companies whose products (or competing products) are featured in the manuscripts they agree to review.
Preparation of Manuscripts
The manuscript must be written in English. The manuscript (including references, legends, and tables) must be typed doublespaced. Start each of these sections on a new page, numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page. Use only 10- or 12-point font size. Manuscripts should be concisely written in a readily understandable style. Standard nomenclature should be used throughout; unfamiliar or new terms and arbitrary abbreviations should be defined when first used.
Titles and Authors
Each manuscript must have a separate title page which includes only the title, authors' full names, academic or professional affiliations and full addresses, as well as the name, address, e-mail, telephone and fax numbers of the author to whom proofs and correspondence should be addressed. If an author's affiliation has changed since the work was done, list the new affiliation as well. The title should be short, clear and concise and should indicate the major point of the paper. They should not exceed 42 characters per line, including punctuation and spaces, and should be limited to 2 lines, if possible. Do not use abbreviations in the title.
Original articles and review articles should include structured abstracts no longer than 250 words with the following information, under the headings indicated: Objective - the primary purpose of the article; Methods - data sources, subjects, design, measurements, data analysis; Results - key findings; and Conclusions - implications, future directions. Brief reports and case reports require an unstructured abstract of one paragraph, not exceeding 150 words. A list of key words, with a maximum of six items, should be included at the end of the abstract. The selection of key words should be based on Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) of Index Medicus and the web site (
Original Articles The contents of the text should include four major sections: introduction, methods, results, and discussion. The introduction should give the reasons for undertaking the study and a summary of the experimental plan. Exhaustive reviews of literature should be avoided. The methods should be described in sufficient detail so that the work can be duplicated, or by reference to previous descriptions if they are readily available. Commonly used methods require only a citation of the original source unless they have been substantially modified. Statistical tests used for evaluation of data should be briefly explained. Special chemicals and drugs with their sources should be grouped under a separate sub-heading (“material” or “drugs”). For drugs, generic names should be used; trade names may be given in brackets where the drug is first mentioned. In case of new drugs, a detailed chemical description (formula) should be given. The results should be described clearly, concisely, and in logical order without extended discussions of their significance. Only in case of brief report, the results and discussion sections may be combined. Results should usually be presented in graphic or tabular form, rather than discursively. There should be no duplication in texts, tables and figures. The discussion should be as concise as possible. In this section, conclusions should be drawn from the results accompanied by an assessment of their significance in relation to previous works. The original articles should not exceed 5,000 words (excluding references, tables and figure legends).
Review Articles Review articles should be structured in the same way as regular papers.
Brief Reports Brief report should not exceed 1,500 words (excluding references, tables and figure legends) and contain no more than one figure or table.
Case Reports Case reports should not exceed 1,500 words (excluding references, tables and figure legends).
Letters to the Editor Letters should not exceed 500 words. They will be edited for clarity and conformity to journal style and may be shortened. There should be no more than five references. Proofs will not be sent to the authors. If an individual patient is described, his or her consent should be obtained and submitted with the manuscript (see above).
Special Articles These articles are mainly organized by editorial board and are concerned with well-known subjects in psychiatry which are going through a period of reevaluation.
Editorials Editorials should be structured in the same way as Brief reports, but no abstract is required. Editorials may exceed two printed pages in length at the Editor's discretion.
Grant support should be acknowledged in a separate paragraph under a separate heading at the end of the discussion section. The full name of the granting agency and grant number should be included. These also should list employment by, consultancy for, shared ownership in, or any close relationship with, an organisation whose interests, financial or otherwise, may by affected by the publication of the paper. This applies to all the authors of the study.
It should be carefully selected to acknowledge previous work or to document a specific point. Referencing follows the Vancouver method of reference citation. In this system, references are numbered in consecutive order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Indentify each reference in texts, tables, and legends by Arabic numbers. All references cited should be listed numerically at the end of the paper. Prepare citations according to the style used in Index Medicus and the International list of periodical title word abbreviations (ISO 833). This journal should be cited in lists of references as Psychiatry Invest. All reference citations in the text should appear in the reference list. When there are less than seven authors, each must be listed in the citation. When seven or more authors, list the first six followed by et al. after the name of the sixth author. Using EndNote's bibliographic management tools, you can search bibliographic database, build and organize your reference collection, and then instantly output your bibliography in any Wiley journal style. Representative examples are as follows:

Journal Article 1. Kwon JS, Shin YW, Kim CW, Kim YI, Youn T, Han MH, et al. Similarity and disparity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia in MR volumetric abnormalities of the hippocampus-amygdala complex. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003;74:962-964.
Book Chapter 2. Fairburn CG, Cooper Z. The eating disorders examination (12th ed). In: Fairburn CG, Wilson GT, editors. Binge eating: nature, assessment, and treatment. New York: The Guilford Press, 1993, p. 317-331.
Book 3. Tudor I. Learner-centeredness as language education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1996.
Web 4. Traumatic brain injury-Nation Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Available at: Accessed November 13, 2002.
Web References
Please keep a printed copy of any reference to Web only information. If the URL changes or disappears, interested readers may contact the corresponding author for a copy of the information.
Double-space on separate sheets of standard-sized (21.6 cm x 27.9 cm or 210 cm x 297 cm) white bond paper. Title each one and number them in the order of their citation in the text. If a table must be continued, repeat the title on a second sheet, followed by “(cont).” Tables should contain sample sizes and units of measurement, when appropriate. Any explanatory notes to be printed with the table must be typed single-spaced beneath the table. The desired position of the table in the manuscript should be indicated. Authors must obtain permission from the original publisher if they intend to use tables from other sources, and due acknowledgement should be made in a footnote to the table.
To ensure the highest quality print production, your figures must be submitted in TIFF format according to the following minimum resolutions:
1200 dpi (dots per inch) for black and white line art (simple bar graphs, charts, etc.)
300 dpi for halftones (black and white photographs)
600 dpi for combination halftones (photographs that also contain line art such as labeling or thin lines) Vector-based figures (usually created in Adobe Illustrator) should be submitted as EPS. Do not submit figures in the following formats: JPEG, GIF, Word, Excel, Lotus 1-2-3, PowerPoint, PDF.
Graphs must show an appropriate grid scale. Each axis must be labeled with both the quantity measured and the unit of measurement. Color figures must be submitted in a CMYK colorspace. Do not submit files as RGB. All color figures will be reproduced in full color in the online edition of the journal at no cost to authors. Authors are requested to pay the cost of reproducing color figures in print. Authors are encouraged to submit color illustrations that highlight the text and convey essential scientific information. For best reproduction, bright, clear colors should be used. All figures should be mentioned in the text and the desired position of the figure in the manuscript should be indicated. Authors must obtain permission from the original publisher if they intend to use figures from other sources, and due acknowledgment should be made in the legend.
Methods of statistical analysis should be described in language that is comprehensible to the numerate psychiatrist as well as the medical statistician. Particular attention should be paid to clear description of study designs and objectives, and evidence that the statistical procedures used were both appropriate for the hypotheses tested and correctly interpreted. The statistical analyses should be planned before data are collected and full explanations given for any post hoc analyses carried out. The value of test statistics used (e.g. t, F-ratio) should be given as well as their significance levels so that their derivation can be understood. Trends should not be reported unless they have been supported by appropriate statistical analyses for trends. The use of percentages to report results from small samples is discouraged, other than where this facilitates comparisons. The number of decimal places to which numbers are given should reflect the accuracy of the determination, and estimates of error should be given for statistics. A brief and useful introduction to the place of confidence intervals is given by Gardner & Altman (Br J Psychiatry 1990;156:472-474). Use of these is encouraged but not mandatory. Authors are encouraged to include estimates of statistical power where appropriate. To report a difference as being statistically significant is generally insufficient, and comment should be made about the magnitude and direction of change.
Randomized Controlled Trials
The Journal recommends to authors the CONSORT guidelines (J Am Med Assoc 1996;276:637-639) and their basis (Ann Intern Med 2001;134:663-694) in relation to the reporting of randomised controlled clinical trials; also recommended is their extension to cluster randomised controlled trials (BMJ 2004;328:702-708). In particular, a flow chart illustrating the progress of subjects through the trial (CONSORT diagram) must be included.
Access to Date
If the study includes original data, at least one author must confirm that he or she had full access to all the data in the study, and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.
Case Reports and Consent
If an individual is described, his or her consent must be obtained and submitted with the manuscript. The individual should read the report before submission. Where the individual is not able to give informed consent, it should be obtained from a legal representative or other authorised person. If it is not possible for informed consent to be obtained, the report can be published only if all details that would enable any reader (including the individual or anyone else) to identify the person are omitted. Merely altering some details, such as age and location, is not sufficient to ensure that a person's confidentiality is kept. Contributors should be aware of the risk of complaint by individuals in respect of defamation and breach of confidentiality, and where concerned should seek advice. In general, case studies are published in the Journal only if the authors can present evidence that the case report is of fundamental significance and it is unlikely that the scientific value of the communication could be achieved using any other methodology.
Abbreviations, Units and Footnotes
All abbreviations must be spelt out on first usage and only widely recognised abbreviations will be permitted. For recognized abbreviations see Units, Symbols, and Abbreviations, Fifth Edition 1994, edited by DN Baron, Royal Society of Medicine: London. Measurements should be expressed in SI units (see BMJ 1991;302:338-341). The generic names of drugs should be used. Generally, SI units should be used; where they are not, the SI equivalent should be included in parentheses. Units should not use indices: i.e. report g/ml, not gml-1. The use of notes separate to the text should generally be avoided, whether they be footnotes or a separate section at the end of a paper. A footnote to the first page may, however, be included to give some general information concerning the paper.
Materials, Equipment and Software
The source of any compounds not yet available on general prescription should be indicated. The version number (or release date) and manufacturer of software used, and the platform on which it is operated (PC, Mac, UNIX etc.), should be stated. The manufacturer, manufacturer's location and product identification should be included when describing equipment central to a study (e.g. scanning equipment used in an imaging study).
Authors should keep a copy of their manuscripts as proofs will be sent to them without the manuscript. Only printer's errors may be corrected; no change in, or addition to, the edited manuscript will be allowed at this stage. Authors will receive proofs by e-mail. The corrected proofs must be returned within 72 hours after receipt by email or FAX. If the Publisher receives no reply, the assumption will be made that there are no errors to correct and the article will be published after in-house correction. Reprints
A minimum of 50 reprints of each will be provided on request, at the author's expense. Additional copies can be ordered at prices shown on the reprint order form which will be sent to the authors with the acceptance form.
For any information
Regarding your accepted manuscript, proof, etc., please phone or fax us at the following numbers, stating the name of corresponding author and article code number: The Psychiatry Investigation, RN 522, 27 Seochojungang-ro 24-gil, Seocho-gu, Seoul 06601, Korea,

Tel: +82-2-537-6171, Fax: +82-2-537-6174, E-mail: