|Dong Hoon Oh;Yong Chon Park; and Seok Hyeon Kim
Department of Neuropsychiatry, College of Medicine and Institute of Mental Health, Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea
Objective : Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) has become recognized as a
broadly influential enzyme affecting diverse range of biological functions,
including gene expression, cellular architecture, and apoptosis. The results of
previous studies suggest that GSK-3β activity may be increased in the brain of
patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). A recent animal study reported
increased GSK-3β messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) level in the hippocampus of
those with depression. However, few studies have investigated GSK-3β activity in
the brain of patients with MDD.
Methods : In order to test whether patients with MDD have an increase in GSK-3β
activity in the brain compared to normal controls, we explored GSK-3β expression
level in all brain regions by using the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium
Integrative Database (SNCID), which is a web-based method of integrating the
Stanley Medical Research Institute data sets.
Results : The level of GSK-3β mRNA expression in the hippocampus was
significantly increased in the MDD group (n=8) compared with the control group
(n=12, p<0.05). Spearman’s test also reveals that GSK-3β mRNA expression levels
were significantly correlated with nitric oxide synthase 1 (NOS1)(ρ=0.70,
p<0.0001) and stathmin-like 3 (STMN3)(ρ=0.70, p<0.0001) in the hippocampus.
Conclusion : Our results correspond with the results of previous animal studies
that reported increased GSK-3β activity in the hippocampus of those with
depression. Our findings also suggest that oxidative stress-induced neuronal
cell death and abnormal synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus may play
important roles in the pathophysiology of major depression.
Data mining;Glycogen synthase kinase-3β;Hippocampus;Major depressive disorder.